ELT-47227 Basic RF Measurements, 5 cr

Additional information

Many of the 'lectures' are learning events in the RF laboratory. Possibly includes an excursion to a major RF company. ***This course is generally not suitable for 1st year students in the Electrical engineering master programme!***

Person responsible

Ali Babar, Jouko Heikkinen, Mikko Valkama


Implementation Period Person responsible Requirements
ELT-47227 2019-01 1 - 2 Ali Babar
Jouko Heikkinen
Measurement exam. In the measurement exam the student shows he/she knows how to do the measurements learned during the course. Compulsory laboratory exercises (spectrum analysers, network analysers, antenna measurements). Grading is based on laboratory exercises and exam.

Learning Outcomes

After completing the course, the student is able to measure one-, two-, and multiport RF blocks. The student interprets the measurement results and estimates the uncertainty associated with the results. The student is familiar with network analyser calibration and the uncertainty of measurement equipment. The student is able to measure the linear behaviour (S parameters) of RF blocks as a function of frequency, and to plan these measurements. The student knows the most important nonlinear measurements and can measure nonlinear behaviour at one frequency at a time. After completing the course, the student is able to measure with spectrum and network analysers without supervision. The student can be left alone in the RF laboratory to make measurements.


Content Core content Complementary knowledge Specialist knowledge
1. Spectrum analysers: Block diagram. Measurements. Measurement demos and laboratory exercise. Signal generators: proper and safe use in measurements.  Different types of signal generators and spectrum analysers. Calibrating spectrum analyser measurements. Errors in spectrum analysis.   Scalar S parameter measurements using a spectrum analyser. 
2. Network analysers: Block diagram of a scalar NA. Measurements, frequency sweeps. Calibration using the SOLT method. Measurement demos and laboratory exercises.  Power sweeps. Different calibration methods. Error model. Block diagram of a vector NA.  Network analyser as a signal generator. 
3. Antenna measurements: Interpreting the results. Antenna parameters: gain, impedance matching, far-field, principal planes. Antenna measurements at the department's anechoic chamber and with the near-field instrument.  The effects of reflections on measurement results. Reflectivity level. Measurement ranges.   Instruments at an antenna measurement range.  
4. Noise: Measuring using the Y factor method. Noise figure, noise factor, noise temperature. Automatic noise measurement instruments.  Noise measurements using the spectrum analyser method. Noise bandwidth. Noise generators.  Noise measurements using the signal generator method. 
5. Passive components: wageguides, cables, connectors, adapters, attenuators, loads, and directional couplers. Proper use of connectors.     
6. Measurement of linear network characteristics (S parameters).  Measurement of nonlinear network characteristics: gain compression, harmonic distortion, and intermodulation.   

Study material

Type Name Author ISBN URL Additional information Examination material
Dummy           Various books available at TUT library. Contact course staff.   Yes   
Other online content   MOODLE         Lecture slides, lab exercises, useful links   Yes   


Course Mandatory/Advisable Description
ELT-47206 Basics of RF Engineering Advisable    

Additional information about prerequisites
The students should be familiar with concepts such as S parameters, reflection coefficient, reciprocity, decibel, dBm. Knowledge of amplifiers (gain, noise figure) and antennas (gain, radiation pattern) is beneficial but not compulsory. Students are encouraged to take RF project and active RF circuits simultaneously with Basic RF measurements.

Correspondence of content

Course Corresponds course  Description 
ELT-47227 Basic RF Measurements, 5 cr ELT-47226 Basic RF Measurements, 4 cr  

Updated by: Turjanmäki Pia, 04.03.2019