FYS-2306 Electron Spectroscopy, 5 cr


Suitable for postgraduate studies.


Mika Valden


Toteutuskerta Periodi Vastuuhenkilö Suoritusvaatimukset
FYS-2306 2018-01 3 Mika Valden
Accepted learning assignments.


After completing the course, the student will be able to define the physical operation principles of electron spectroscopy methods such as XPS, AES, ARUPS and NEXAFS. The student will learn how to apply the electron spectroscopy methods to identify elemental distribution of solid surfaces, nanostructures and molecular structure of surface compounds. During the course, the student will learn to solve surface analytic research problems in tutorial learning sessions (groups of 4-6 students) based on the shared expertise of the group members. The student will master the skills required to report the results of the learning assignments using Moodle learning management system as well as in the forms of a research report and a seminar presentation.


Sisältö Ydinsisältö Täydentävä tietämys Erityistietämys
1. Surface analysis and surface sensitivity: Principles of surface analytical research. Surface sensitivity. Application examples of surface analysis.  Surface science research at TUT.   
2. Vacuum technique: Definition of vacuum. Vacuum ranges. Residual gas. Vacuum pumps. Pressure measurements. Vacuum compatible materials.  Rotary vane pump. Diffusion pump. Turbomolecular pump. Sorption pump. Titanium sublimation pump. Ion pump. Mass spectrometer.   Vacuum environments. 
3. Electron Spectroscopy: Classification of electron spectroscopy methods. Attenuation length and information depth. Energy analysers.   Historical perspectives of electron spectroscopy. Role of emission angle to information depth. Retarding field analysers. Mirror plane analyser. Concentric Hemispherical Analyser.  Electrical derivation. 
4. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS): Photon sources. Spectral features and chemical shifts. Adiabatic approximation. Nanostructures on surfaces. XPS as an analytical method.  X-ray lines and X-ray satellites. Three-step model of photoemission. Koopman's theorem. Analysis of the extrinsic electron energy loss structure. Quantitative analysis.  Intrinsic and extrinsic processes of photoemission. Many-electron effects in photoemission.  
5. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES): Auger-transition. Energy of the Auger transition. AES as an analytical method. Comparison of XPS and AES methods. Depth profiling.  X-ray fluorescence yield versus Auger electron yield.  Carbon KVV-transition. 
6. Ultra-violet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS): Photon sources and surface sensitivity of UPS. Orientation and symmetry of adsorbed molecules. Surface molecule point groups. Polarization-dependent selection rules.   Fermi's Golden Rule. Dipole matrix element. Character table. Polarization. ARUPS CO/Ni(100).  Hûckel molecular orbital theory. ARUPS C6H6/Pd(110). 
7. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS): Synchrotron radiation and surface science. NEXAFS and EXAFS methods.  Analysis of EXAFS spectrum.  XAS of Cu oxides. 

Ohjeita opiskelijalle osaamisen tasojen saavuttamiseksi

The assessment of the course is either numeric on the grade scale of 0 ... 5 or "Pass/Fail". The assessment method will be decided together with the students at the beginning of the course. The numeric assessment is based on a literature exam. If the student demonstrates thorough understanding of the core content, s/he may pass the course with the grade 3. In order to achieve grade 4, the student must also demonstrate competency in the points specified in column "Complementary knowledge". The student may achieve grade 5, if s/he demonstrates good command of the points specified in column "Specialist knowledge". If there are minor shortcomings regarding the core content, the student may receive the grade 1 or 2, depending on the number of flaws. If there are significant shortcomings regarding core content, the student will not pass the course. The assessment of the course can also be "Pass/Fail". The student can earn the passing grade, if s/he has completed all the learning assignments in a satisfactory manner.


Numerical evaluation scale (0-5)


Completion parts must belong to the same implementation


Tyyppi Nimi Tekijä ISBN URL Lisätiedot Tenttimateriaali
Other online content     Valden Mika         Yes   
Online book   X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy : An Introduction to Principles and Practices   Paul van der Heide   9781118162927       Yes   


Opintojakso Vastaa opintojaksoa  Selite 
FYS-2306 Electron Spectroscopy, 5 cr FYS-2306 Electron Spectroscopy, 5 cr  
FYS-2306 Electron Spectroscopy, 5 cr FYS-2300 Electron Spectroscopy, 5 cr  

Päivittäjä: Ikonen Suvi-Päivikki, 13.03.2018